1980s Commentators Suggested That a

Where women do obtain jobs that are gendered as male, they have to act like men to succeed in them” (p. 508).


From a metaphorical perspective, the research showed that the term “glass ceiling” is used to describe the institutionalized practices that serve to prevent women as a group from gaining access to the senior management levels in the public and private sector. From a feminist perspective, the research also showed that not only is the glass ceiling very real, it remains firmly in place in many segments of society in the West in general and in Australia in particular. While the reasons cited for these disparities in treatment varied, the overriding theme that emerged from the research was that the glass ceiling was installed by males in patriarchal societies who regard their lofty positions as sacrosanct and inviolable by women and use whatever data may be at hand to justify their positions. Finally, from a hostile sexist perspective, the glass ceiling is simply a useful tool to use to help regulate who will and will not join a companys leadership team by restricting access to men who will likely think, act and look like them.


Coyne, Beulah S., Edward J.

Coyne and Monica Lee. 2004. Human Resources, Care Giving, Career Progression, and Gender: A Gender Neutral Glass Ceiling. New York: Routledge.

Greig, Alastair, Frank Lewins and Kevin White. 2003. Inequality in Australia. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Masser, Barbara M. And Dominic Abrams. 2004. “Reinforcing the Glass Ceiling: The Consequences of Hostile Sexism for Female Managerial Candidates.” Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 51: 609.

Mcallister, Ian, Steve Dowrick and Riaz Hassan. 2003. The Cambridge Handbook of the Social Sciences in Australia. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Morrison, Ann M., Randall P. White and Ellen Van Velsor. 1994. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Can Women Reach the Top of Americas Largest Corporations? Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Naff, Katherine C. 2001. To Look like America: Dismantling Barriers for Women and Minorities in Government. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Parkhouse, Sam. 2001..


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