(2005) the needs of adult students are of a unique nature and include: (1) institutional flexibility in curricular and support services; (2) academic and motivational advising supportive of their life and career goals; and (3) recognition of previously obtained experience- and work-based learning. This work states eight principles along with their definitions and include the principles of: (1) outreach; (2) life and career planning; (3) financing; (4) assessment of learning outcomes; (5) teacher-learning process; (6) student support systems; (7) technology; and (8) strategic partnerships.
4) Research-Based Principles – Adult Basic Education Reading Instruction (2002) Partnership for Reading. The National Institute for Literacy. 2002.
The Reading Research Working Group (RRWG) is a panel of experts on adult reading research and practice which was established by the National Institute for Literacy in cooperation with the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy and is part of the efforts of the Institute to make provision to educators and parents with “access to scientifically-based reading research, including research-based tools for improving literacy programs and policies for children, youth and adults, through the Partnership for Reading.
” (2002) it is related in this work that the instructional approach taken from the K-12 research can appropriately be utilized with adults.
5) Lovett, Tom and Mackay, Libby (2005) Adult Education and the Working Class: A Case Study. The Urban Review. Vol. 9. No. 3, 30 Sept 2005.
The work of Lovett and Mackay (2005) relates a study in which it was assumed that the reasons for failure of many programs designed for adult education for the working class were: (1) a lack in resources; (2) the curricula reflected values alien to working class people; (3) irrelevance of programs which appear to provide for apparent rather than real needs; (4) retaining of memories of painful experiences during compulsory educational years; (5) lack of confidence as a result of competitive education; and (6) women have internalized the low expectations apparent in the.